شادی در غزلیّات شمس تبریزی با تکیه بر عوامل عرفانی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار زبان وادبیات فارسی دانشگاه مازندران

2 کارشناس ارشد زبان و ادبیات فارسی

چکیده

با وجود آنکه مولوی پرورده ی دوران آشوب زده ای چون دوران مغول است، تحت تأثیر تعالیم پدرش، بهاء ولد، و استادش، محقق ترمذی، و به ویژه شمس تبریزی، با سلوک در تصوّف بسطی و عرفان عاشقانه، شادی و طرب را درون خود جاری ساخت و در غزلیّات شمس بازتاب داد. با مطالعه و بررسی عوامل شادی در غزلیّات وی، روشن می شود که نوع شادی او انفسی و درونی است. او بر عشق، معشوق، رهایی از خود و وصال، بیش از سایر عوامل تأکید دارد. از دیدگاه او، عشق، شادی بخش زمان و مکان، عامل کمال و وصال به معشوق است و معشوق دوگانه، یعنی نهان (خدا) و آشکار (شمس، زرکوب و چلبی) به زندگی اش معنا می بخشند. او با کشف معنای زندگی، در رهایی از خود و پیوستن به وصال می کوشد و آن گاه که به خودشکوفایی و کمال می رسد، مغز و معنی شادمانی را می یابد و برای ابدی ساختن آن، از بندگی معشوق غافل نمی شود.

عنوان مقاله [English]

Joy in Ghazaliyāt-e Shams, with Reference to Gnostic Elements

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aliakbar Bagheri Khalili 1
  • Esmat Ameri 2
1 Associate Professor, Mazandaran University
2 Graduate M. A. student in Persian literature
چکیده [English]

Joy is a positive state and an intrinsic part of mind.  It is a range of both material and spiritual pleasures accompanied by happiness and other positive passions. In psychology it is based on positive mindset, in sociology on sense of well-being, and in Gnosticism and religion on fulfillment of God’s will. Examination of the historical attitude to joy in the Iranian culture and literature shows that the ancient Iranians were joyful people, and Iran was considered as a land of joy and worship.  In the Sāsāniyān period due to economic downfall and weakening of religious beliefs, and other transformations and events, the specter of insecurity engulfed the country. With the formation of Ghaznavīd, and even Sāmānīd dynasties a new sense of security, as well as cultural and economic recovery emerged, but what constituted joy was essentially of an external type. However, the flourishing growth of the period did not last long and the subsequent political and social situation brought about a depressing atmosphere for the Iranians. In the same period determinism and subjectivism grew in Iran and joy took a subjective dimension to itself. Molavī, who grew up in such an atmosphere, and was under the tutelage of many scholars of the time, let joy run in his heart and reflected it in his poems. An examination of his poems shows that joy for him was of a subjective sort and concepts such as love, the beloved, and freedom from the self of fundamental importance. From Molavī’s viewpoint, love has multiple functions and the beloved gives meaning to life; thus, he endeavors to join his beloved so as to reach perfect self-actualization, and achieve everlasting joy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Moulavi
  • Shams
  • Joy
  • love